Windows API对话框不使用资源文件

c++ winapi dialog

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5414 作者的声誉

我正在尝试使用C ++和Windows API创建一个对话框,但我不希望在资源文件中定义对话框。我在网上找不到任何好的东西,我读过的所有例子似乎都没有以编程方式定义对话框。

有人知道怎么做吗?一个简单的例子很好,我还没有做任何复杂的事情。

作者: conmulligan 的来源 发布者: 2008 年 9 月 14 日

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10739 作者的声誉

看一下这个工具包,它描述了如何创建没有资源文件的对话框。它在WTL中,但是我确信你可以直接使用win32 API来分离内部结构来实现相同的功能。

作者: Alan 发布者: 2008 年 9 月 14 日

11

6589 作者的声誉

决定

我认为Raymond Chen在这里有一个很好的例子:http//blogs.msdn.com/oldnewthing/archive/2005/04/29/412577.aspx

作者: Andreas Magnusson 发布者: 2008 年 9 月 14 日

1

402 作者的声誉

尝试在MSDN中搜索“内存中的对话框模板”

请参阅此示例:http//msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms632588(VS.85).aspx

作者: realsugar 发布者: 2008 年 9 月 15 日

1

0 作者的声誉

Salam,您好,在这里您可以找到如何在不使用资源文件的情况下使用Windows API对话框。Winapi(C Win32 API,无MFC)教程:http://zetcode.com/gui/winapi/

作者: Hassan 发布者: 2009 年 8 月 9 日

3

225 作者的声誉

如果您只想显示一个带控件的窗口,则可以在不使用资源(.rc)文件/脚本的情况下创建窗口。

这与对话框不同,但它可能比以编程方式创建对话更容易。

首先,关于如何做到的一些注意事项:

  • 您可以手动使用CreateWindow(或CreateWindowEx)创建主窗口的子窗口,而不是在rc文件中设计对话框。(对于.NET Winforms程序员,这些窗口就像Controls)。

  • 这个过程根本不是图形化的(你需要手动输入每个窗口的位置和大小),但我认为这可以很好地理解如何在底层创建对话框。

  • 不使用真实对话有一些缺点,即在控件之间切换时该选项卡不起作用。


关于这个例子:

  • 这个例子有一个带有两个按钮的对话框,一个编辑框(.NET winforms程序员会把它想象成一个TextBox)和一个复选框。

窗口截图

它已在以下条件下进行了测试:

  • x86构建
  • x64构建
  • Unicode构建(UNICODE_UNICODE定义)
  • 非Unicode版本(UNICODE_UNICODE不是定义)
  • 使用Visual Studio的C编译器构建
  • 使用Visual Studio的C ++编译器构建
  • 操作系统:Windows 10 64位

现在代码:

请注意,添加了大量注释以尝试记录Windows函数,我建议将其复制/粘贴到文本编辑器中,以获得最佳效果。

// This sample will work either with or without UNICODE, it looks like it's recommended now to use
// UNICODE for all new code, but I left the ANSI option in there just to get the absolute maximum
// amount of compatibility.
//
// Note that UNICODE and _UNICODe go together, unfortunately part of the Windows API
// uses _UNICODE, and part of it uses UNICODE. 
//
// tchar.h for example, makes heavy use of _UNICODE, and windows.h makes heavy use of UNOCODE.
#define UNICODE
#define _UNICODE
//#undef UNICODE
//#undef _UNICODE

#include <windows.h>
#include <tchar.h>

// I made this struct to more conveniently store the positions / size of each window in the dialog
typedef struct SizeAndPos_s
{
    int x, y, width, height;
} SizeAndPos_t;

// typically these would be #defines but there is no reason to not make them constants
const WORD ID_btnHELLO = 1;
const WORD ID_btnQUIT = 2;
const WORD ID_CheckBox = 3;
const WORD ID_txtEdit = 4;
const WORD ID_btnShow = 5;

//                                    x,      y,      width,  height
const SizeAndPos_t mainWindow   =   { 150,    150,    300,    300 };

const SizeAndPos_t btnHello     =   { 20,     50,     80,     25 };
const SizeAndPos_t btnQuit      =   { 120,    50,     80,     25 };
const SizeAndPos_t chkCheck     =   { 20,     90,     185,    35 };

const SizeAndPos_t txtEdit      =   { 20,     150,    150,    20 };
const SizeAndPos_t btnShow      =   { 180,    150,    80,     25 };

HWND txtEditHandle = NULL;

// hwnd:    All window processes are passed the handle of the window that they belong to in hwnd.
// msg:     Current message (e.g., WM_*) from the OS. 
// wParam:  First message parameter, note that these are more or less integers but they are really just "data chunks" that you are expected to memcpy as raw data to float, etc.
// lParam:  Second message parameter, same deal as above.
LRESULT CALLBACK WndProc(HWND hwnd, UINT msg, WPARAM wParam, LPARAM lParam) 
{

    switch (msg) 
    {

    case WM_CREATE:
        // Create the buttons
        //------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

        // note that the "parent window" is the dialog itself. Since we are in the dialog's WndProc, the dialog's handle is passed into hwnd.
        //
        //CreateWindow( lpClassName,        lpWindowName,       dwStyle,                                x,          y,          nWidth,         nHeight,            hWndParent,     hMenu,              hInstance,      lpParam
        //CreateWindow( windowClassName,    initial text,       style (flags),                          xPos,       yPos,       width,          height,             parentHandle,   menuHandle,         instanceHandle, param);
        CreateWindow(   TEXT("Button"),     TEXT("Hello"),      WS_VISIBLE | WS_CHILD,                  btnHello.x, btnHello.y, btnHello.width, btnHello.height,    hwnd,           (HMENU)ID_btnHELLO, NULL,           NULL);

        CreateWindow(   TEXT("Button"),     TEXT("Quit"),       WS_VISIBLE | WS_CHILD,                  btnQuit.x,  btnQuit.y,  btnQuit.width,  btnQuit.height,     hwnd,           (HMENU)ID_btnQUIT,  NULL,           NULL);

        // Create a checkbox
        //------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
        CreateWindow(  TEXT("button"),      TEXT("CheckBox"),   WS_VISIBLE | WS_CHILD | BS_CHECKBOX,    chkCheck.x, chkCheck.y, chkCheck.width, chkCheck.height,    hwnd,           (HMENU)ID_CheckBox, NULL,           NULL);

        // Create an edit box (single line text editing), and a button to show the text
        //------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
        //Handle        = CreateWindow(windowClassName,    windowName,           style,                              xPos,       yPos,       width,          height,             parentHandle,   menuHandle,         instanceHandle, param);
        txtEditHandle   = CreateWindow(TEXT("Edit"),       TEXT("Initial Text"), WS_CHILD | WS_VISIBLE | WS_BORDER,  txtEdit.x,  txtEdit.y,  txtEdit.width,  txtEdit.height,     hwnd,           (HMENU)ID_txtEdit,  NULL,           NULL);

        //CreateWindow( windowClassName,    windowName,         style,                                  xPos,      yPos,      width,          height,           parentHandle,   menuHandle,         instanceHandle, param);
        CreateWindow(   TEXT("Button"),     TEXT("Show"),       WS_VISIBLE | WS_CHILD,                  btnShow.x, btnShow.y, btnShow.width, btnShow.height,    hwnd,           (HMENU)ID_btnShow,  NULL,           NULL);

        // Create an Updown control. Note that this control will allow you to type in non-number characters, but it will not affect the state of the control

        break;

    //For more information about WM_COMMAND, see https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/windows/desktop/ms647591(v=vs.85).aspx
    case WM_COMMAND:

        // the LOWORD of wParam identifies which control sent the WM_COMMAND message. The WM_COMMAND message is sent when the button has been clicked
        if (LOWORD(wParam) == ID_btnHELLO) 
        {
            MessageBox(hwnd, TEXT("Hello!"), TEXT("Hello"), MB_OK);
        }
        else if (LOWORD(wParam) == ID_btnQUIT) 
        {
            PostQuitMessage(0);
        }
        else if (LOWORD(wParam) == ID_CheckBox)
        {
            UINT checked = IsDlgButtonChecked(hwnd, ID_CheckBox);

            if (checked) 
            {
                CheckDlgButton(hwnd, ID_CheckBox, BST_UNCHECKED);
                MessageBox(hwnd, TEXT("The checkbox has been unchecked."), TEXT("CheckBox Event"), MB_OK);
            }
            else 
            {
                CheckDlgButton(hwnd, ID_CheckBox, BST_CHECKED);
                MessageBox(hwnd, TEXT("The checkbox has been checked."), TEXT("CheckBox Event"), MB_OK);
            }
        }
        else if (LOWORD(wParam) == ID_btnShow)
        {
               int textLength_WithNUL = GetWindowTextLength(txtEditHandle) + 1;
               // WARNING: If you are compiling this for C, please remember to remove the (TCHAR*) cast.
               TCHAR* textBoxText = (TCHAR*) malloc(sizeof(TCHAR) * textLength_WithNUL);

               GetWindowText(txtEditHandle, textBoxText, textLength_WithNUL);

               MessageBox(hwnd, textBoxText, TEXT("Here's what you typed"), MB_OK);

               free(textBoxText);
        }

        break;

    case WM_DESTROY:

        PostQuitMessage(0);
        break;
    }

    return DefWindowProc(hwnd, msg, wParam, lParam);
}


// hInstance: This handle refers to the running executable
// hPrevInstance: Not used. See https://blogs.msdn.microsoft.com/oldnewthing/20040615-00/?p=38873
// lpCmdLine: Command line arguments.
// nCmdShow: a flag that says whether the main application window will be minimized, maximized, or shown normally.
//
// Note that it's necesary to use _tWinMain to make it so that command line arguments will work, both
// with and without UNICODE / _UNICODE defined.
int APIENTRY _tWinMain(HINSTANCE hInstance, HINSTANCE hPrevInstance, LPTSTR lpCmdLine, int nCmdShow) 
{
    MSG  msg;
    WNDCLASS mainWindowClass = { 0 };
    mainWindowClass.lpszClassName = TEXT("JRH.MainWindow"); // you can set the main window name to anything, but typically you should prefix custom window classes with something that makes it unique.
    mainWindowClass.hInstance = hInstance;
    mainWindowClass.hbrBackground = GetSysColorBrush(COLOR_3DFACE);
    mainWindowClass.lpfnWndProc = WndProc;
    mainWindowClass.hCursor = LoadCursor(0, IDC_ARROW);

    RegisterClass(&mainWindowClass);

    // Notes:
    // - The classname identifies the TYPE of the window. Not a C type. This is a (TCHAR*) ID that Windows uses internally.
    // - The window name is really just the window text, this is commonly used for captions, including the title bar of the window itself.
    // - parentHandle is considered the "owner" of this window. MessageBoxes can use HWND_MESSAGE to free them of any window.
    // - menuHandle: hMenu specifies the child-window identifier, an integer value used by a dialog box control to notify its parent about events. 
    //               The application determines the child-window identifier; it must be unique for all child windows with the same parent window.

    //CreateWindow( windowClassName,                windowName,             style,                            xPos,         yPos,       width,              height,            parentHandle,   menuHandle,  instanceHandle, param);
    CreateWindow(   mainWindowClass.lpszClassName,  TEXT("Main Window"),    WS_OVERLAPPEDWINDOW | WS_VISIBLE, mainWindow.x, mainWindow.y, mainWindow.width, mainWindow.height, NULL,           0,           hInstance,      NULL);

    while (GetMessage(&msg, NULL, 0, 0)) 
    {
        TranslateMessage(&msg);
        DispatchMessage(&msg);
    }

    return (int)msg.wParam;
}

// This code is based roughly on tutorial code present at  http://zetcode.com/gui/winapi/

进一步阅读

内置的窗口类集非常有限,因此您可能会对如何Control使用winapi 定义自己的窗口类(“ s”)感到好奇,请参阅以下文章:

注意:我最初打算这篇文章以编程方式介绍对话框的创建。由于我的错误,我没有意识到你不能只是“显示”窗口作为对话框。不幸的是,我无法得到Raymond Chen提到的设置。

作者: jrh 发布者: 2017 年 12 月 28 日
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